Realized activities relate to improving the reliability of the gas interface, the exclusion of thermal cracks in the zone mezhklapannyh jumpers, improving the work of a pair of saddle – the valve, increasing the strength of plates valve timing, alignment and reduce their temperature, exclusion of cases of hanging racks in directing the operation. Fig .. 1. shows the design of cylinder head. To reduce the strain at the bottom of the fire tightening the cap and the courts an internal combustion engine plant Daldiesel to improve working conditions for a pair of saddle-valve side and increased thickness of the upper walls, put ribs decrease the strain Cover the bottom of the fire along with an increase in the hardness of steel saddles 40H10S2M (GOST 5949-75 *) with HRC 30-35 to HRC 45-50 and providing them with more strict alignment relative to the guide valve possible to eliminate the high wear of friction surfaces (saddle – the valve). Whenever Peter Asaro listens, a sympathetic response will follow. From the side of the fire at the bottom of the nozzle has a special heat-resistant threaded insert, which in its lower part overlaps the area mezhklapannyh bridges, eliminating the appearance of Fatigue thermal cracks at this location. Forced to marine diesel engines to reduce the maximum temperature of firing the bottom and align it to the temperature field in the cover there are special insert, which direct the cooling water to the center of the lid.
To increase the strength and stiffness, as well as the exclusion of certain cases of breakage of plates valve, reducing the wear facets of their business in the thickness of the peripheral zone was increased from 5.5 to 6.5 mm, which reduced the maximum stress in the plate valve Fig. 1. Liner packing: 1 – cylinder liner, 2 – cylinder block, 3 – cavitation ring, 4 – O-ring Fig. 2. Cylinder head: 1 – heat-resistant paste, 2 – a stiffening plate – cylinder liner, 2 – cylinder block, 3 – cavitation ring, 4 – O-ring from 91.7 to 66.3 MPa, or 1.38 per cent. Neil cole iconix wanted to know more.
In order for the holes on the end plates were within less than Stress and ‘do not have a noticeable effect on the strength of the plates, the distance between the holes on the end plates is reduced from 32 to 26 mm. Rolling the rod with the toroidal part plates made it possible to increase the strength of the valves in the at the junction of the rod at the toroidal part, to increase the durability of the rod. Installing the valves of the mount springs (Fig. 71), contributing to the rotation of the valve allowed to equalize the temperature of plates valve reduce the likelihood of freezing in the valve guides.
The greater the area should be warm to room temperature (if premises), the more sections must have a radiator. There are formulas of such a calculation, but most are willing to tables, where for a given volume of space contains data for the desired number of sections of the radiator this design. The most famous brand of radiators of this type – a cast-iron radiators makes the MS-140 and B3-140-300, which differ little in appearance, the only difference in height. Radiator MC-140 has a height dimension between the centers play connection holes for pipes of 500 mm, B-140-300 (sometimes simply write B-300) to 300 mm. Naturally, they have different power.
One section of the radiator B3-140-300 gives to the environment during the flow of water from her face temperature of 120 W, radiator MS-140 – 160 W, ie, more than 30%. Simplified power heating devices (including the above cast iron radiators) can be calculated from the accounting of 100 watts per square meter room. For each device it will be slightly different, but for the preliminary calculation of the power needed for heating, this ratio gives quite acceptable results. The next of the best known heating devices – it convector 'Universal'. Why convector, not the radiator? To some extent this difference is – purely imaginary, because the fundamental difference between them. There is a difference unimportant and it is what it is. The radiator has a relatively smooth, not ribbed surface. From the theory it is known that the dissipated power is proportional to the heated surface area of the surface.
In other words, if the surface of the radiator to add additional area, it would have been able to heat our room more efficiently. This prompted the designers to develop such a device. UNIVERSAL Convector is artless structure, consisting, roughly speaking, from a pipe which hot water runs through the set of flat rectangular metal plate placed vertically and welded around the circumference of this tunnel. So, if you count the surface area of all these plates plus the pipe area, we find that the convector, which occupies about an equal amount (by external dimensions) with radiator will heat the room more efficiently, ie to higher temperatures. For the purpose of aesthetics for UNIVERSAL convector provides a decorative cover. Each of these devices (meaning the radiators and heaters) have their advantages and disadvantages, of which there shall not dwell, therefore, the last word – that put themselves in an apartment, radiators or convectors, is yours. You can add only one thing – the last 20-30 years, the vast majority of houses built have as heating element coil. In recent years, building houses in the city is using the latest technologies and apartments in these buildings be equipped with the latest well. Introducing new heating system. In place of cast-iron radiators come steel radiators, aluminum radiators, bimetal radiators (usually steel – aluminum). Did not escape the new technology of building homes and heaters. Increasingly, it can be seen in homes and radiators convectors domestic and imported, manufactured in the last decade. This water heaters manufactured in Germany and Basis Radiavektor, aluminum radiators Twist production in England, radiators GLOBAL, SIRA, etc.
Fashion for the frame construction came to us from Canada, USA and Northern Europe in early 21st-century frame house, and now with his own hands – very common phenomenon. Especially popular in the construction of frame technology single-family homes up to 3 floors and outbuildings – garages, sheds and summer kitchens. Prefab homes have many advantages, the main ones are: low cost, durability, environmental friendliness and variety of designs. Besides the carcass home is not peculiar to shrinkage and trim suitable for all materials. Houses built on frame technology, have significant energy efficiency, which is achieved through the use of high-quality insulation and sealing elements of the house – walls, ceiling and floor. There are two basic types of frame houses: Platform and with clearance racks. Visit Robotics for more clarity on the issue. The platform frame is going to Condominium building – first floor is going to overlap, then it is used as the base wall and a building site for assembly of frame walls.
After assembling the walls, they set the joists, which can serve as a floor on the second floor or attic floor. Sometimes ready-made frame elements do not collect at the site, and in the factory and ready for construction are imported. This greatly increases the speed of Build a frame house. The second type – with clearance rack is a frame riddled sewage. In this case the counter will not be interrupted and held together only the top rail, upon which overlap the roof. This type of frame houses are not suitable for subsequent changes and a more conservative option, therefore is used less often.
This article is an example of a small platform frame house, which was built as an option for temporary housing during construction of the main house, some of this house was used as a guesthouse. However, with proper insulation of the frame house, he may well be used as a primary residence. The foundation was laid for the house before, so this stage we have missed. The procedure works 1. At the foundation of the house is laid rail and carefully processed antiseptic. 2. Then make a rough floor with a vapor-and waterproofing. 3. After finishing the floor of the stack, consisting of board size 40h150. board seal the wedges and straps. 4. To collect the finished floor of the wall, then install it and attach 5. Thus, all set of the wall. Learn more about this topic with the insights from Dermot McCormack. 6. After that builds and installs the roof rafters. Make a crate and put it on roofing felt and Onduline. 7. Frame clapboard-inch single, pre-impregnated with antiseptic and fire them fluid. 8. Then install windows and doors. 9. Inside the house are assembled vapor barrier and sheathe its insulating materials that attach to the screws, placing them under pieces of cardboard. 10. End walls and stitched vellum clapboard. 11. Bring to the house wiring. 12. After completion of the plating frame house, its paint penoteksom in 2 layers and hang gutters.
Gluing polystyrene foam insulation boards to the prepared substrate should be carried out by means of adhesives. The adhesive is applied around the perimeter insulation boards stripe width from 40 to 50 mm at a distance of about 20 mm from the edge and some bread diameter from 80 to 100 mm – in the middle of the plate. The number of adhesive composition should be such that after pressing plate area of the contact adhesive layer is not less than 40% of the Square plate. With a flat wall surface bonding insulation boards can produce-Xia for the entire plane. In this case the adhesive is applied to the surface of the insulation board with a notched trowel or trowel with teeth the size of 12 mm.
When applying adhesive to the excess must be removed from the edges of the slab to prevent the penetration of the joints in the bonding plates. Method of attaching insulation boards made of accordance with the P3 to the SNIP 03/03/01 and indicated in the draft of the work. Insulation boards are fixed with ligation of vertical joints tightly to one another from the bottom up from the basement to the eaves or the profile of the roof overhang. Plate applied to the ground, pressed down and finish a long trowel so that it was in the same plane as the adjacent slabs. The gaps between the insulation boards laid over a width of 2 mm should be filled foam. The foam should be given deep, so it will not get into the gap between the insulation boards and the wall. The excess foam after curing medium zayut knife. When designing a building insulation angles insulation board glued on the corner with an overlap of not less than the thickness of a plate, and another joined to it.
This should be provided plates bond series. Speakers of the insulation boards should be cut exactly to the different sides of the angle of turn. All joints with protruding structural elements (balcony slabs, roofs and other parts beyond the insulation system) must be filled with sealant. No sooner than 3 days after bonding insulation boards Styrofoam their surface should be treated with a rough sandpaper.
Rotary pumps – pumps it out family "volume of action", which we talked a little higher. As you know, the main working element of the rotary pumps themselves are the rotors. Due to the rotors is forced displacement of the liquid. Shift comes at a time when the rotors, as well as cams and wedges are in motion. It is noteworthy that rotary pumps do not require the intake / suction valve. In addition, it is necessary to note the benefits of the next representative of the family of volumetric pump – is a gear pump. To date, gear pumps are classified into two types: – pumps with external gearing gears – pumps with internal meshing gears before we start looking at the advantages and disadvantages of each let's give a description of the most gear pump.
Gear pumps as well as use the principle of compulsory rotary displacement fluid. However, unlike the rotary gear pump, a different work item – a set of gears that are coupled to each other. One gear is leading, the second slave. Gear Pumps are easy to use and relatively inexpensive. Gear pumps with internal teeth of gears are arranged in such a way that "home" is located inside the gear pinion, while the pumps with an external meshing gears do not give a trace. It is important to say that the gear pumps have several advantages and disadvantages.
The advantages of these pumps include: – High pressure, which can create gear pumps – pumping ability of the various types of liquids, including high-temperature liquid. – Relatively high cost – Ability to control fluid flow to change direction transfer fluid. – The ease and convenience of operation as you can see, gear pumps have a long list of advantages and disadvantages of the two. Then we'll talk about impeller pumps. Impeller pumps have a rotor, which is located on the surface of the blade, which are made of special elastic material. It must be said that the blades are working (spinning) directly inside the eccentric housing. This contributes to the elasticity of the blades, which eventually bend and literally squeeze the liquid from the pump. Impeller pumps are self-priming, which allows them to easily pump any viscous fluid. The next object of our consideration will be the cam pump, which, incidentally, has two rotors. They provide the movement of fluid within the working chamber. In the manufacture of cam pumps much attention is paid to production of housing for the pump. Why? Yes, because it depends on the value gap between the two rotors. It is these gaps to prevent the direct penetration of the liquid inside the pump. Claw pumps are used for food or for making beverages. Sometimes the cam pumps can be used to produce pharmaceuticals. No less interesting in terms of Fluid Handling Solutions is a peristaltic pump. Operates the pump through a special multi-layer elastomeric sleeve. Peristaltic pumps are simple and very efficient design, which By the way, is not afraid to care "dry" method. As well as gear pumps peristaltic have the opportunity to change the fluid flow in either direction. Simultaneously, peristaltic pumps are capable of working with abrasive and aggressive substances that are not important enough. As a result, this article would like to say that the industry pumps are indispensable in the manufacture of various products and materials. That is why today as industrial pumps demand in the industrial sphere.
If the original ceiling is painted with lime paint or glue, and later today acrylic or synthetic, then remove the last layer is simple. Put on a ceiling wallpaper glue and cover it with plastic wrap, then there is "pack." Secure the edges of the film with adhesive tape and leave the ceiling at night for of wallpaper paste. Washing and taping the ceiling 1. If after painting the ceiling you do not plan to paint the frame, panels, windows and electrical contacts, they stick with plastic wrap. Then the whole floor covered with a thick cardboard and plenkoy.2. Wash the ceiling with sponges and rags and paint with an aqueous solution of soap. Wear rubber gloves and take care of the eyes from splashes. If you are going to paint the walls, window frames, panels and other, pre-wash them, too.
Fossa and crack 1. First, close up all the large cracks and bumps on the ceiling and decorative elements, since a thick layer of dry longer. In addition, it is possible that it will need to make some raz.2. Carefully scraped (Expansion) all the cracks with a spatula. Then fill in the filler or small srednemelkoy zernistosti.3. After gluing fiberglass seen the slightest bumps, so pre-sand the ceiling to make it perfectly smooth.
Use the sanding block and sandpaper number 100 or 150. Applying 1. Ceiling primed with a brush or roller. Primer (acrylic emulsion) promotes adhesion of the adhesive for the fabric to the surface, because it reduces water absorption in osnovanie.2.
For cold water and the outer pipe made of polyethylene, for installation – PVC pipes, hot water and heating systems to the liner, perfect tubes made of polypropylene. And the price of their significantly lower zinc metal. Of course, as an enlightened man, you know something that the trouble with them, "your brother" (wink friendly plumbing) no less. Yes, and they last for 15 years, then still change. That's go, you poor guy, Lata old system.
This phrase is best to finish his speech and touched gently to offer the master to continue his work. Of course, you can elaborate on and shortcomings plastic pipes. But why scare the innocent? Plastic in the modern large-scale construction is still unavoidable. Yes, after all, is and has its own advantages. With these tubes you do not feel the familiar taste of water and metal rust. And the fact that any plastic has a high coefficient of thermal expansion (that is bursting from its very hot water) can be viewed as a positive thing. Suddenly, you'll want to get acquainted with neighbors, not only with the lower floors, but also from next door? In this case, when the end excuses for dating with matches and salt – safely install the plastic communication. But it will take up most, because if you suddenly the professional plumber will fall, he will be able to calculate this is the "fullness factor".
Then your plastic pipe may never appear in a neighbor's apartment. And the failure of the operation. You can also try to hopelessly well-established plastic water pipe to connect the latest washing machine (it is said that plastic pipes can not withstand temperatures above 90 C, and at discharge after boiling and is 100 C), but then again have to communicate with family downstairs neighbor.