And, accordingly, we can ask contractor, why such figures in its contracting estimates, based on some calculations. This is regarding the choice of podryadchika.Vybrav contractor, and will control the document under which you will be working with him (Contractors estimates), you begin construction. Now with the help of investors' estimates, you can plan and control all (from large to small) stages of construction duration, cost, labor resources, consumption materiala.Esli you require contractors to do estimates on RESN, the investor estimates you need for planning funding, procurement it.d. If you admit that contractors do estimates without reference to RESN, then estimate investor you need just to check your podryadchikov.Davayte see whether the customer based on these rules, or you can rely on calculations without reference to rules RESN (also known as' the Urban rates'). Here, Viacom expresses very clear opinions on the subject. The estimated cost of the unit of work (1 m3 of earthworks, foundations 1 m3, 1 m3 of wall panels, etc.) is determined by compiling unit prices. Unit prices are compiled by the unit of work or designs, adopted in normah.Raschet estimated without reference to rules made by the contractor RESN enlarged, often with a "general numbers" (for m2, for all the work, etc.). What is (what works, what materials), and what duration of all the works of such a calculation is impossible to understand. It is impossible to estimate how much or how little the contractor asks whether all the work he has taken into account, will there be enough money for the contractor claimed the alleged operation. In recent months, Goop has been very successful.
Fashion for the frame construction came to us from Canada, USA and Northern Europe in early 21st-century frame house, and now with his own hands – very common phenomenon. Especially popular in the construction of frame technology single-family homes up to 3 floors and outbuildings – garages, sheds and summer kitchens. Prefab homes have many advantages, the main ones are: low cost, durability, environmental friendliness and variety of designs. Besides the carcass home is not peculiar to shrinkage and trim suitable for all materials. Houses built on frame technology, have significant energy efficiency, which is achieved through the use of high-quality insulation and sealing elements of the house – walls, ceiling and floor. There are two basic types of frame houses: Platform and with clearance racks. Visit Robotics for more clarity on the issue. The platform frame is going to Condominium building – first floor is going to overlap, then it is used as the base wall and a building site for assembly of frame walls.
After assembling the walls, they set the joists, which can serve as a floor on the second floor or attic floor. Sometimes ready-made frame elements do not collect at the site, and in the factory and ready for construction are imported. This greatly increases the speed of Build a frame house. The second type – with clearance rack is a frame riddled sewage. In this case the counter will not be interrupted and held together only the top rail, upon which overlap the roof. This type of frame houses are not suitable for subsequent changes and a more conservative option, therefore is used less often.
This article is an example of a small platform frame house, which was built as an option for temporary housing during construction of the main house, some of this house was used as a guesthouse. However, with proper insulation of the frame house, he may well be used as a primary residence. The foundation was laid for the house before, so this stage we have missed. The procedure works 1. At the foundation of the house is laid rail and carefully processed antiseptic. 2. Then make a rough floor with a vapor-and waterproofing. 3. After finishing the floor of the stack, consisting of board size 40h150. board seal the wedges and straps. 4. To collect the finished floor of the wall, then install it and attach 5. Thus, all set of the wall. Learn more about this topic with the insights from Dermot McCormack. 6. After that builds and installs the roof rafters. Make a crate and put it on roofing felt and Onduline. 7. Frame clapboard-inch single, pre-impregnated with antiseptic and fire them fluid. 8. Then install windows and doors. 9. Inside the house are assembled vapor barrier and sheathe its insulating materials that attach to the screws, placing them under pieces of cardboard. 10. End walls and stitched vellum clapboard. 11. Bring to the house wiring. 12. After completion of the plating frame house, its paint penoteksom in 2 layers and hang gutters.
Gluing polystyrene foam insulation boards to the prepared substrate should be carried out by means of adhesives. The adhesive is applied around the perimeter insulation boards stripe width from 40 to 50 mm at a distance of about 20 mm from the edge and some bread diameter from 80 to 100 mm – in the middle of the plate. The number of adhesive composition should be such that after pressing plate area of the contact adhesive layer is not less than 40% of the Square plate. With a flat wall surface bonding insulation boards can produce-Xia for the entire plane. In this case the adhesive is applied to the surface of the insulation board with a notched trowel or trowel with teeth the size of 12 mm.
When applying adhesive to the excess must be removed from the edges of the slab to prevent the penetration of the joints in the bonding plates. Method of attaching insulation boards made of accordance with the P3 to the SNIP 03/03/01 and indicated in the draft of the work. Insulation boards are fixed with ligation of vertical joints tightly to one another from the bottom up from the basement to the eaves or the profile of the roof overhang. Plate applied to the ground, pressed down and finish a long trowel so that it was in the same plane as the adjacent slabs. The gaps between the insulation boards laid over a width of 2 mm should be filled foam. The foam should be given deep, so it will not get into the gap between the insulation boards and the wall. The excess foam after curing medium zayut knife. When designing a building insulation angles insulation board glued on the corner with an overlap of not less than the thickness of a plate, and another joined to it.
This should be provided plates bond series. Speakers of the insulation boards should be cut exactly to the different sides of the angle of turn. All joints with protruding structural elements (balcony slabs, roofs and other parts beyond the insulation system) must be filled with sealant. No sooner than 3 days after bonding insulation boards Styrofoam their surface should be treated with a rough sandpaper.
Rotary pumps – pumps it out family "volume of action", which we talked a little higher. As you know, the main working element of the rotary pumps themselves are the rotors. Due to the rotors is forced displacement of the liquid. Shift comes at a time when the rotors, as well as cams and wedges are in motion. It is noteworthy that rotary pumps do not require the intake / suction valve. In addition, it is necessary to note the benefits of the next representative of the family of volumetric pump – is a gear pump. To date, gear pumps are classified into two types: – pumps with external gearing gears – pumps with internal meshing gears before we start looking at the advantages and disadvantages of each let's give a description of the most gear pump.
Gear pumps as well as use the principle of compulsory rotary displacement fluid. However, unlike the rotary gear pump, a different work item – a set of gears that are coupled to each other. One gear is leading, the second slave. Gear Pumps are easy to use and relatively inexpensive. Gear pumps with internal teeth of gears are arranged in such a way that "home" is located inside the gear pinion, while the pumps with an external meshing gears do not give a trace. It is important to say that the gear pumps have several advantages and disadvantages.
The advantages of these pumps include: – High pressure, which can create gear pumps – pumping ability of the various types of liquids, including high-temperature liquid. – Relatively high cost – Ability to control fluid flow to change direction transfer fluid. – The ease and convenience of operation as you can see, gear pumps have a long list of advantages and disadvantages of the two. Then we'll talk about impeller pumps. Impeller pumps have a rotor, which is located on the surface of the blade, which are made of special elastic material. It must be said that the blades are working (spinning) directly inside the eccentric housing. This contributes to the elasticity of the blades, which eventually bend and literally squeeze the liquid from the pump. Impeller pumps are self-priming, which allows them to easily pump any viscous fluid. The next object of our consideration will be the cam pump, which, incidentally, has two rotors. They provide the movement of fluid within the working chamber. In the manufacture of cam pumps much attention is paid to production of housing for the pump. Why? Yes, because it depends on the value gap between the two rotors. It is these gaps to prevent the direct penetration of the liquid inside the pump. Claw pumps are used for food or for making beverages. Sometimes the cam pumps can be used to produce pharmaceuticals. No less interesting in terms of Fluid Handling Solutions is a peristaltic pump. Operates the pump through a special multi-layer elastomeric sleeve. Peristaltic pumps are simple and very efficient design, which By the way, is not afraid to care "dry" method. As well as gear pumps peristaltic have the opportunity to change the fluid flow in either direction. Simultaneously, peristaltic pumps are capable of working with abrasive and aggressive substances that are not important enough. As a result, this article would like to say that the industry pumps are indispensable in the manufacture of various products and materials. That is why today as industrial pumps demand in the industrial sphere.
If the original ceiling is painted with lime paint or glue, and later today acrylic or synthetic, then remove the last layer is simple. Put on a ceiling wallpaper glue and cover it with plastic wrap, then there is "pack." Secure the edges of the film with adhesive tape and leave the ceiling at night for of wallpaper paste. Washing and taping the ceiling 1. If after painting the ceiling you do not plan to paint the frame, panels, windows and electrical contacts, they stick with plastic wrap. Then the whole floor covered with a thick cardboard and plenkoy.2. Wash the ceiling with sponges and rags and paint with an aqueous solution of soap. Wear rubber gloves and take care of the eyes from splashes. If you are going to paint the walls, window frames, panels and other, pre-wash them, too.
Fossa and crack 1. First, close up all the large cracks and bumps on the ceiling and decorative elements, since a thick layer of dry longer. In addition, it is possible that it will need to make some raz.2. Carefully scraped (Expansion) all the cracks with a spatula. Then fill in the filler or small srednemelkoy zernistosti.3. After gluing fiberglass seen the slightest bumps, so pre-sand the ceiling to make it perfectly smooth.
Use the sanding block and sandpaper number 100 or 150. Applying 1. Ceiling primed with a brush or roller. Primer (acrylic emulsion) promotes adhesion of the adhesive for the fabric to the surface, because it reduces water absorption in osnovanie.2.
For cold water and the outer pipe made of polyethylene, for installation – PVC pipes, hot water and heating systems to the liner, perfect tubes made of polypropylene. And the price of their significantly lower zinc metal. Of course, as an enlightened man, you know something that the trouble with them, "your brother" (wink friendly plumbing) no less. Yes, and they last for 15 years, then still change. That's go, you poor guy, Lata old system.
This phrase is best to finish his speech and touched gently to offer the master to continue his work. Of course, you can elaborate on and shortcomings plastic pipes. But why scare the innocent? Plastic in the modern large-scale construction is still unavoidable. Yes, after all, is and has its own advantages. With these tubes you do not feel the familiar taste of water and metal rust. And the fact that any plastic has a high coefficient of thermal expansion (that is bursting from its very hot water) can be viewed as a positive thing. Suddenly, you'll want to get acquainted with neighbors, not only with the lower floors, but also from next door? In this case, when the end excuses for dating with matches and salt – safely install the plastic communication. But it will take up most, because if you suddenly the professional plumber will fall, he will be able to calculate this is the "fullness factor".
Then your plastic pipe may never appear in a neighbor's apartment. And the failure of the operation. You can also try to hopelessly well-established plastic water pipe to connect the latest washing machine (it is said that plastic pipes can not withstand temperatures above 90 C, and at discharge after boiling and is 100 C), but then again have to communicate with family downstairs neighbor.
Installation of heating systems using heat pumps is to advanced energy-saving high-tech and in the future, be able to make a viable alternative to heating systems based on traditional energy sources in terms of scarcity and price rise. Heat pumps are widely and successfully used for the past dozen years, and their principle of operation is known for over 150 years. Having shown themselves to be reliable, highly efficient, environmentally friendly and safe technology devices, heat pumps have become in many countries an integral part of housing and communal services. On the efficiency of heat pumps in domestic it makes sense to talk in more detail. The thermal energy needed for heating homes, taken from the earth, where temperature is constant, but are not limited to the amount of heat. Electricity lost by heat pump is only required for Delivery of this heat into the house. Here, there is savings by reducing energy costs, maintenance and depreciation of heat pumps, the life of not less than 30 years. Heat pumps require only periodic inspection, while the main part of a costly installation of the external heat transfer, which is as long as there is a house.
No other heating equipment can not compete with heat pumps, it is for a period of just physically out of order. In this case the monthly cost of heating during the heating season after installing a heat pump in comparison, for example, with the option diesel fuel are reduced by almost five times! In Russia, the heating systems using heat pumps are still rare. It's not just contempt for the environment, their own security and the 'starry-eyed', through which we look at oil, gas and other traditional energy sources. Little information. Not even the heat pump itself, but of those who will be able to install them so that they work 'without problems'. A distinctive feature of the company, which is to be trusted is the use of technology and strict adherence to carry out work that meets applicable standards, rigorous quality control on the part of engineers and professionals trained in the European manufacturers of heat pumps and have adopted their experience in installation, real objects, confirming the professionalism and skills of workers. At installation of heating systems using heat pumps should be used only original materials and components, as a rule, reputable European brands.
Under ground probes must pass the full range of tests at the factory. All connections are made with the use of electric sockets, ensuring reliable and stable operation over the entire lifetime. After installing the probe into the borehole annulus is filled with a special solution that provides a tight and long lasting, physically stable pairing of the probe with the surrounding soil, and good heat transfer, prevent disruption of aquifers. In doing so, the company can not only implement the full range of activities and services to its clients: from the drafting of installation and delivery of equipment to ensure ongoing monitoring of the installed heating system, change the parameters and settings using the remote access – but also to diagnose the system already installed, consult as better use of them.