For example, talk about fire-resistance rating. This figure means of protection is regulated by existing regulations. For steel it is characterized by the number of minutes from the start fire tests to reach a critical temperature (500 0 C) a standard sample of steel construction with flame retardant coating. In advertising, protective coatings can be read "refers to the means of Group 1 fire protection efficiency. " This means that the time to reach the critical temperature must be at least 150 minutes. For the second group the figure – at least 120 minutes and so on. To deepen your understanding Castle Harlan is the source. In total there are 6 groups.
For timber introduce other measures of fire protection or impregnating composition. According to GOST 16363-76 (a careful reading of the instructions you will definitely see a link to it), there are only three groups of flame retardant efficiency. Group I – provides slow-wood (weight loss of the prototype during the combustion of certain conditions, the method is not more than 9%). Group II – provides inflammable wood (weight loss of 9 to 30%). Group III – funds do not provide the fire protection of timber (weight loss of more than 30%). Therefore, when buying a flame retardant, look at the number of fire-resistance rating. What he less, the composition better.
Sometimes it happens that the technology of applying the rules of composition and its flow rate depends on its effectiveness. Materials for tissue has its own standard, under which the test results flammable Textile materials are subdivided into flammable and inflammable. What is fire-retardant paint all flame retardants can be divided into impregnation, paints and varnishes. The word "treatment" rather eloquently. They are intended mainly to protect the wood and textile products, that is, for those materials that can infiltrate. If you try to briefly explain the "principle of the" impregnation we can say that certain temperatures in these compounds is substitution reaction with the absorption of energy, which inhibits burning.
And so in the court of the crisis, but do you have planned renovation in their apartment. You might ask the question, and if I can finish the repairs and did not suffer "financial ruin"? In this article we will try to figure out whether to make a real repair in time of crisis. Currently, most construction projects put on hold, demand for the renovation of apartments fell by 40% and construction companies are looking hard customers, intensified competition and this naturally affected the cost of housing and respectively apartment renovation. Small and medium-sized construction companies are trying to stay on the market, lowering prices, and while they do it. In a short time, maybe it will make large companies that still retain the old rates, due to execution of orders that were made to reduce the demand for repairs, and regular customers.
Prices of construction materials also went down, albeit marginally. Ie You can expect that in the near future prices repairs and building materials will not go up. In these circumstances, planning repair your home will be beneficial step. First you need to determine the scope and plan of work. Ie You can start to spend partial repair. Choose a good and proven construction company, building materials and appropriate. Determine what you can do yourself, but it would be best to entrust to specialists. In this case, important to remember the saying "miser pays twice" and not try to find the cheapest, but a questionable option.
With regard to building materials should be approached particularly responsible, because this may depend on the health of you and your family. To do this would be best to consult with experts or, in extreme cases, self-study the matter. The main approach to everything very carefully. If you do repairs on parts, then in case of any disasters in the economy, you will be able to finish the partially repaired without much loss. Well, if all goes well, then you can continue to repair and complete it successfully, he felt great satisfaction. AND so if you can make repairs flats during the crisis? The answer – of course you can. And it can be done very profitable.
Incidentally, according to feng shui apartment bathroom – a room that is responsible for the financial well-being of the family. And who among us wants to have a stable financial situation? How should look like such an important and significant for us room? Not so long ago, in the so-called "years of stagnation 'of the Soviet past, virtually all apartments have standard toilets to make hygiene. They were small in size, plain and unsightly. The walls are lined with simple tiles, with a homely figure, white porcelain, a toilet with a sink cast iron tub, yes – that's standard interior most of the bathrooms at the time. Times change, and the approach to the arrangement of an interior bathroom, you can tell, there was a revolution. Samsung Electronics can aid you in your search for knowledge. The emergence of many new technologies have opened and finishing materials for limitless design fantasies.
The interior modern bathroom can be seen: stone, glass, metal, plastic and even wood. Not to mention the huge selection of ceramic tiles and mosaics. The variety of plumbing is so large that simply defies the imagination. Here and steam shower enclosures in all shapes and sizes, whirlpools with halogen lighting, aromatherapy, allowing to listen to your favorite music, taking water therapy, and even mini-pools SPA. In today's market A wide range of bathroom furniture: various cabinets, shelves, cabinets and mirrors. Often in the interiors of bathrooms can be seen and chairs, and dressers, and sculpture. If the presence of a window, then decorate it with beautiful curtains and put flowers on the windowsill. Lighting solution bathroom assumes any lighting – from a variety of point lights to chandeliers of various configurations.
Choosing bathroom accessories room is limited only by your imagination flying. Carpets and rugs, figurines and statues, paintings, posters, candles and lots of beautiful, cherished trinkets. Modern ventilation systems have made these areas dry, and heated floors – warm.
Bonding of metal – the process time consuming and expensive. But the costs of installation of metal does not grew at an exorbitant price, the customer will have to work around a number of "gotchas." Those who first engaged in its own roof home and chose to do a Finnish metal roofing or roof of the Polish, Ukrainian production, two key points are important: the cost of masonry and metal turnaround time. Here there are two approaches. First – when metal and all the work prescribed in the budget and takes into account all the way down to the last screw. You may find Kai-Fu Lee to be a useful source of information. And the second – when the budget itself does not exist, and the customer pays the money as they need a roof paver.
Consider the advantages and disadvantages of the first method – placing metal with the calculation of the estimates, and the second – when the customer pays a "flow." What determines the cost of installation of metal? Clearly, the time and cost depend on the area of the roof, roof pitch and the cost of consumables – and it's always an individual account. But here is the formation of the cost of work on laying some metal masters is quite unusual, if not does not correspond to market prices. Customers ordering a laying of metal, often found on long-proven marketing technique – the cheap cost of labor. All masters are well aware that their customer service always looking for where the cheaper ones. Therefore, if the invite workers offering their services for installation of metal, standing on the neck with the ads directly in the market, it's like to pull a lottery ticket. The cost of their services masonry metal is 15-30% lower than in any company, but the quality – a big question: what if it was not necessary after all their work to correct.
Virtually every person in the bathroom is mainly associated with the place where it is assumed to take a bath or shower, this kind of space for rest and relaxation, cleansing not only the body but also the soul. To create a conducive and peaceful atmosphere conducive to the rest of your body, you should seriously consider the repair and finishing works at the bathroom. The most common bathroom walls use of decorative tiles from the tile, which has many causes. First, a tile bathroom walls to protect against adverse and damaging effects of moisture and temperature changes in the room. Many writers such as Code.org offer more in-depth analysis. Second, tiling does not require you to specialized skills. And third, the modern models have all kinds of tiles and decorative color varieties that you will agree, can not but rejoice. As an bathroom ceiling coverings are fine slabs of expanded polystyrene, which are famous for their high degree of protection against moisture and vapors. Also, for finishing the ceiling paint is widely used and vlagoottalkivayuschaya water-resistant wallpaper, which go perfectly with all the same irreplaceable tiles. Filed under: Pete Cashmore.
Whatever materials for finishing you choose, remember that the result of finishing the bathroom just depends on your desires and diligence. Take seriously the work and do not rush to finish with the completion, as ugly and poorly renovated bath will not cause you positive emotions for the time spent foolishly. Remember to make quality repair facilities, which will last you for quite some time, you should carefully think through all the stages of finishing, but it is best to prepare a detailed plan carefully and comply with it. This will help you create out of your bathroom is not just a place where it is assumed to wash, but a real piece of art that will delight you every time you go into it..
During more than one person uses the Millennium clothing fur skins of wild or domestic animals. Fur is characterized by beauty, strength, durability and practicality. At all times the natural fur had a high enough price. Advances in technology allowed the development of artificial (synthetic) fibers that are not inferior, and in some respects and superior to, natural. Today, the majority of tissue is produced of these fibers. Not an exception and fur. In the 20th century was created by artificial fur, with properties not inferior to the natural. For even more opinions, read materials from AOL. Faux fur consists of two main parts – the rotor base (or ground) and nap cover.
In various furs used different materials to the soil and pile and pile fastening technology to cover basis. To date, several varieties produced fake fur – woven, knitted, stitched and glued. The names reflect the full consolidation method nap cover on the ground. Woven faux fur production technology woven artificial fur is quite simple. At a distance equal to two lengths Pile fur the future, available soil, consisting of strong fibers. These ground fabric is densely woven pile with a thin fiber.
Thus, a kind of sandwich – between two dense ground cloths is thick nap cover. Further, this "sandwich" is cut lengthwise, so that we obtain two fur fabric with the same height of pile. To consolidate the pile in the ground it on the back side is treated Special adhesive composition. Knitted fur fabric when making knitted fur pile gets involved in the foundation on special knitting machines. This technology allows you to fasten on each villus carrying the dirt with a cloth knot. Knitted fur fabric is very durable, lint, hair loss for a little typical. Adhesive Glue fur fake fur is made by attaching a nap cover to the base. Technology, this is quite complicated, requiring the use of special equipment. Recently received a distribution method for attaching the villi, using an electrostatic field. Fur produced in this way has a thick and evenly spaced bristles, imitating fur. In the manufacture of fur used natural fabrics and fibers, artificial synthetic fiber. To date, the greatest use is made of polyester fibers, characterized by high mechanical strength, easy to fabricate and paint. On the basis of these fibers is produced with the finest fur soft pile to simulate natural furs. Every year the production of tissue increases. This is not surprising. Faux fur on many properties are not inferior to natural fur, even their appearance is almost indistinguishable. And the cost of artificial fur is much lower than natural. Faux fur can be any external data – the color, the length of the pile, density, luster, and more. Of course, fake fur is never completely replace the natural, but will be a worthy counterpart.
All modern wooden flooring originates from magestik floor-Solid wood flooring. More recently, in apartments on the board changed and linoleum flooring and a floor board using only the construction of huts and lodges. But now the board has returned to the home as a high-end flooring. Massive board – it's oiled solid wood flooring as opposed to – the construction of several layers, tightly bonded to each other. From its predecessor, it is different way of manufacturing and quality of wood drying. Equally important is the fact that manufactured magestik floor mainly of fine wood, which in turn turn makes it possible to vary the colors. For a dense joining of the floorboards are special technological features, such as tongue and groove, which greatly simplifies the installation of the floor. The advantages of this material are evident: excellent thermal insulation, vysokayaprochnost, elasticity, light weight.
Properties of Solid wood flooring is directly dependent on the species of tree from which it is made. Most e resistant to extremes of Temperature and humidity are wood species that contain natural oils, such as oak. The majority of light wood and fruit wood (cherry, black cherry, pear) are very sensitive to humidity room. By the size of solid wood is different: in length from 0.5 to 3 meters in width from 10 to 20 cm in regard to thickness, and in this case there are no rigid standards, but is itself running 18, 20 or 22 mm. Board thickness is directly related to its mechanical strength.
Before starting to lay solid wood in the room, it must be acclimatised in the room at least 72 hours. Package with no need to open. The room has to be installed windows and doors, as the temperature fluctuations should be negligible. The walls and ceiling also has to be trained – are aligned, dried, as moisture in the room should not be high (45% -65%).
Any normal house, must necessarily have walls, roof, doors and windows. Asked if you ever yourself, "what a person needs windows?". First and foremost, of course, to illuminate the room, because nobody want to pay extra money for electricity, if at the time the window there is a free source of light. Second, the windows are needed for ventilation, as in a closed room, sooner or later, the air going negative and harmful substances, from which you want to get rid of, and the man is always more pleasant to breathe fresh air. The third factor, which confirms the justification for the presence of windows in the house is just a pleasure species, and in this case, the binding conditions are the presence of a beautiful, modern and clean windows. Since ancient times, over many generations, people have used as a wood frame for windows that we, the modern age, simply not justified for many reasons.
Everyone knows that wood burns very well and therefore, in fire at home in the first place, it will be exposed to fire, wooden items, including frames, as well as wood emits large the amount of heat, the fire spread and it will be quite rapid. Another important fact of aging technology of timber frame is that the heat and sound insulation properties of wood are far from ideal, which eventually leads to loss of heat in the house and the presence of excessive street noise. Due to the fact that wood is a material that has been created by nature itself, which did not involve the use of wood as a material for hard window, then it is not surprising that the wooden frames quite a negative response to low and high temperatures and humidity, and thus can quickly crack from dryness under exposure to sunlight and lose its original shape and color.
A. Fashion and styles of interior design "Fashion always reflects reality and is closely followed. In our life consists of technological progress, and acute problem of ecology, democracy and globalization. Humanity badly feels the transience of life because of something and increases the value of human existence and comfort. In addition, increased culture and material well-being, and certainly ambitious. We – individuals, aristocrats and intellectuals – are becoming bolder and freer.
All this will certainly affect the way we live and, with respect to the subject, affect, and in our house. So what should be home today modern man? Of course, each of us, chooses the conditions in which it exist and what style to follow. But we live in the 21 century, and must use the unique capabilities of modern life. B. Luxury and wealth today in interior fashion dominates luxury! But now the luxury you need to add technology: LED, printing from digital media, nanotechnology, and stereolithography … News and exaggerated, even huge – furniture and decor items. Also, again popular attributes such luxuries as stucco and brilliance, but brilliance is not as open as before, but aged and hearts. Carving, engraving, antique patina …
In honor such interior styles as eclectic and fusion, which combine the different textures, objects, style solutions, and even culture. Past, present and future intersect today in a temporary space. There are "glam-baroque" and "soft minimalism". Designers draw Today my eyes in the 50's – 80 years. They are interested scratched and chipped things with history, vintage items on the shabby …
In the modern window market, there are two main competitors – plastic windows and wooden euro-windows. Metal and plastic windows are so named because the foundation of their window structure is a metal skeleton. More accurately be called their windows made of PVC, reinforced with galvanized corrugated steel products. The advantages of plastic windows: – Durability – guaranteed lifetime of plastic windows for 40 years and higher – Environmentally friendly – plastic windows are absolutely harmless to health. Used in metal-plastic windows is slightly different from the plastic, which is used to make bottles with drinking water and toys. Plastic windows are not subject to external influences, do not emit any substances and practically nonflammable. – Functionality – plastic windows retain heat well, remove drafts.
The ideal insulation – noise level is reduced by an order, you will not hear the street. Plastic windows do not need paint, do not have to seal up every winter, the glossy surface is easy to clean. – Design – any the most intricate designs of plastic profile: square, rectangular, arched, triangular, polygonal, circular. Plastic windows and doors in different colors for apartments offices, country houses, cottages, shops and factories, conservatories, glazed metal-windows of balconies and loggias. Plastic windows – ideal to implement any ideas in interior design. – Wealth of configurations – Aluminum windows can be ordered with a single chamber, double-glass, with glass, filled with an inert gas, with double glazing with energy efficient glass. With the deaf, turning, tilting and swivel-hinged doors. In addition, there is a lamination technology boxes under the tree, and then the street can not be distinguished from the wooden plastic windows. Accessories for plastic windows: Window sills, reveals, mosquito nets, decorative layout and falshplanki, ventilation systems (comb, slotted ventilation, HVAC valve, automatic vent slit), toning and protective film. Euro Windows 2000 – for windows.